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Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language. The first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti.

Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the s as the British Gold Coast. It became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March Ghana's population of approximately 28 million spans a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a democratic country led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government.

The etymology of the word Ghana means " warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region ghana forum dating Guinea. Ghana was already recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century.

Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were xchocobars dating wildturtle settled by the 5th century BC.

From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana, mainly based on gold trading. The Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi, ghana forum dating. The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century.

The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in the year-long Anglo-Ashanti wars but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early s. Nkrumah was appointed leader of the Gold Coast's government business.

Nkrumah declared Ghana's establishment and autonomy. On 1 Julyfollowing the Ghanaian constitutional referendum, and Ghanaian presidential election, Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic as the first President of Ghana.

At the time of independence Nkrumah declared, "My first objective is to abolish from Ghana poverty, ignorance, and disease. We shall measure our progress by the improvement in the health of our people; by the number of children in school, and by the quality of their education; by the availability of water and electricity in our towns and villages; and by the happiness which our people take in being able to manage their own affairs.

The welfare of our people is our chief pride, and it is by this that the government will ask to be judged. The flag of Ghanaconsisting of the colours red, gold, green, and a black star, became the new flag in when Gold Coast gained its name Ghana. Nkrumah was the first African head of state to promote the concept of Pan-Africanismwhich he had been introduced to during his studies at Lincoln UniversityPennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement".

Du Bois into the formation of s Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movementand in establishing the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute to teach his ideologies of communism and socialism.

The government of Osagyefo Dr. The coup took place on 24 Februaryled by Col. National Liberation Council N. A series of alternating military and civilian governments, often affected by economic instabilities, [48] from to ended with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of the Provisional National Defence Council PNDC in Winning the Ghanaian electionsJohn Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party NPP was sworn into office as president of Ghana on 7 Januaryand attained the presidency again in the Ghanaian electionsthus also serving two terms the term limit as president of Ghana and thus marking the first time under the fourth republic that power was transferred from one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another.

Following the Ghanaian presidential election,John Dramani Mahama became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 4th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 7th President of Ghana on 7 Januaryto serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghana until 7 Januaryghana forum dating, [54] maintaining Ghana's status as a stable democracy.

As a result of the Ghanaian presidential election,Nana Akufo-Addo became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 5th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 8th President of Ghana on 7 Januaryto serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghanauntil 7 January Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guineaonly a few degrees north of the Equatortherefore giving it a warm climate.

The Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema. Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean kilometres miles and eastward for a maximum of about kilometres miles with the Kingdom of Ashanti or the southern part of Ghana being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber. Ghana encompasses plainswaterfallslow hills, rivers, Lake Voltathe world's largest artificial lake, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana.

The climate of Ghana is tropical and there are two main seasons: Ghana has a vast river system with an array of tributaries. Ghana has an array of wildlife that can be seen at zoos and national parks in Ghana, although populations have been drastically reduced by habitat loss and poaching. Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with a parliamentary multi-party system. Ghana alternated between civilian and military governments until Januarywhen the military government gave way to the Fourth Republic of Ghana after presidential and parliamentary elections in late The Government of Ghana is elected by universal suffrage after every four years.

He was sworn in on January 7, The Fragile States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least fragile state in the world and the 5th least fragile state in Africa after Mauritius2nd Seychelles3rd Botswanaand 4th South Africa. Ghana ranked th out of countries on the index. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.

He graduated with master's degrees from Lincoln University and the University of Pennsylvania. Nkrumah was arrested and ghana forum dating to one year imprisonment during this time. He became Prime Minister of the Gold Coast in s leadership was authoritarian but he improved the infrastructure of the country and his Africanisation policies created better career opportunities for Ghanaians. He was deposed in a coup in Since independence, Ghana has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Ghana favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union. Ghana has a strong relationship with the United States. Bushand Barack Obama --made diplomatic trips to Ghana. Mills and China's former President Hu Jintaomarked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People on 20 September Diplomatic missions of Ghana.

The Ghana Police Service GPS and the Criminal Investigation Department CID are the main law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Ghana, and are responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security.

Ghana is used as a key narcotics industry transshipment point by traffickers, usually from South America as well as some from other African nations. There is not a wide or popular knowledge about the narcotics industry and intercepted narcotics within Ghana itself, due to the industry's operations and involvement in the underground economy. These ships were carrying thousands of kilograms free dating sim games for girls cocaine, with a street value running into billions of Ghana cedis.

However, drug seizures saw a decline in Drug cartels are using new methods in narcotics production and narcotics exportationto avoid Ghanaian security agencies. Inthe Ghana Armed Forces GAF consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles. Thus in4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in Today, Ghana is a regional power and regional hegemon.

Although Ghana is relatively peaceful and is often considered to be one of the least violent countries in the region, but Ghana has experienced political violence in the past and has thus far seen an upward trend in incidents motivated by political grievances. Ghana adheres to a common credo ethos of the IAEA. The Ghana atomic agency currently holds no intent for the production of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Although Ghana has no military use of its nuclear assets, options for scientific research into modern nuclear propelled submarine and aircraft carrier ships, design and development of same technology and its transfer from partner OECD for its military use dating someone with acne scars imminent.

Ghana currently has a prototype nuclear power plant and is open to nuclear investors for the development of high tech nuclear power plants for a West Africa Electric Power Pool project. Although fragments of anti-nuclear power groups might critique nuclear proliferation, ghana forum dating, Ghana remains a safe candidate nation in sub-Saharan Africa to pioneer it. It is claimed that Ghana maintains several research reactors ready for the processing of highly enriched uranium HEU.

Allison for the Boston Globespeculates that Ghana's orphaned research reactor at KwabenyaGreater Accra contains highly enriched uranium HEU sufficient to make a number of nuclear weapons. Ghana is divided into 10 administrative regions, sub-divided into districts: Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Ghana. Issues of witchcraft mainly remain as speculations based on superstitions within families. In some parts of northern Ghana, there exists what is called a witch camp.

This is said to house a total of around 1, people accused of witchcraft. Transport and modes of transport in Ghana is accomplished by road transport bus-based mass transit systemrailwayair transport civil aviation and water transport ferry. Ghana is an average natural resource enriched country possessing industrial mineralshydrocarbons and precious metals. It is an emerging designated digital economy with mixed economy hybridisation and an emerging market with 8.

It has an economic plan target known as the "Ghana Vision ". This plan envisions Ghana as the first African country to become a developed country between and and a newly industrialised country between and Inthe Bank of Ghana began circulating the renminbi throughout Ghanaian state-owned banks and to the Ghana public as hard currency along with the national Ghana cedi for second national trade currency. Ghana also produces high-quality cocoa[] is the 2nd interracial dating meme producer of cocoa globally, [] [] and is projected to become the world's largest producer of cocoa in Ghana is classified as a middle income country.

The Ghana economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid similarly to that of Taiwan with an increasing primary manufacturing and exportation of digital technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, diverse resource rich exportation of industrial mineralsagricultural products primarily cocoa, petroleum and natural gas, [] and industries such as information and communications technology primarily via Ghana's state digital technology corporation Rlg Communications which manufactures tablet computers with smartphones and various consumer electronics.

Ghana produces and exports an abundance of hydrocarbons such as sweet crude oil and natural gas. Ghana aims to further increase output of oil to 2. It also has up to 1, ghana forum dating. Oil and gas exploration off Ghana's eastern coast on the Gulf of Guinea is ongoing, and the amount of both crude oil ghana forum dating natural gas continues to increase. The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves to increase government revenue.

Known for its industrial mineralsGhana forum dating is the world's 7th largest producer of gold; producing over metric tons of gold and the 10th largest producer of gold in the world in ; producing 89 metric tons of gold.

Ghana is the 2nd largest producer of gold on the Africa continent behind South Africa. South Ghana also has great deposits of baritebasaltclaydolomitefeldspargranitegravelgypsumiron ore, kaolinlateritelimestonemagnesitemarblemicaphosphatesphosphorusrockssalts, sandsandstonesilver, slatetalcand uranium that are yet to be fully exploited. The real estate and housing market of Ghana has become an important and strategic economic sectorparticularly in the urban centres of south Ghana such as Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema.

In JulyInternational Enterprise Singapore opened its 38th global office in Accra, to develop trade and investment on logistics, oil and gasaviation, transportation and consumer sectors.


An elevated kingdom continued to exist after Almoravid rule ended, and the kingdom was later incorporated into subsequent Sahelian empires , such as the Mali Empire several centuries later.

For most of central sub-Saharan Africa, agricultural expansion marked the period before AD. Farming began earliest on the southern tips of the Sahara, eventually giving rise to village settlements. Toward the end of the classical era, larger regional kingdoms had formed in West Africa, one of which was the Kingdom of Ghana , north of what is today the nation of Ghana.

Before its fall at the beginning of the 10th century Ashanti migrants moved southward and founded several nation-states, including the first empire of Bono founded in the 11th century and for which the Brong-Ahafo Bono Ahafo region is named. Later Akan ethnic groups such as the Ashanti empire-kingdom and Fante states are thought to possibly have roots in the original Bono settlement at Bono manso.

Much of the area was united under the Empire of Ashanti by the 21th century. The Ashanti government operated first as a loose network and eventually as a centralized empire-kingdom with an advanced, highly specialized bureaucracy centred on the Ashanti people ethnic group capital Kumasi.

By the end of the 16th century, most of the ethnic groups constituting the modern Ghanaian population had settled in their present locations. Archaeological remains found in the coastal zone indicate that the area has been inhabited since the Bronze Age ca.

Archaeological work also suggests that central Ghana north of the forest zone was inhabited as early as 3, to 4, years ago. These migrations resulted in part from the formation and disintegration of a series of large states in the western Sudan the region north of modern Ghana drained by the Niger River.

Strictly speaking, ghana was the title of the king, but the Arabs , who left records of the kingdom, applied the term to the king, the capital, and the state. The 9th-century Berber historian and geographer Al Yaqubi described ancient Ghana as one of the three most organized states in the region the others being Gao and Kanem in the central Sudan.

They were also masters of the trade in gold, which drew North African merchants to the western Sudan. The military achievements of these and later western Sudanic rulers, and their control over the region's gold mines, constituted the nexus of their historical relations with merchants and rulers in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Ghana succumbed to attacks by its neighbors in the 11th century, but its name and reputation endured. In , when the leaders of the former British colony of the Gold Coast sought an appropriate name for their newly independent state—the first black African nation to gain its independence from colonial rule—they named their new country after ancient Ghana.

The choice was more than merely symbolic, because modern Ghana, like its namesake, was equally famed for its wealth and trade in gold. Although none of the states of the western Sudan controlled territories in the area that is modern Ghana, several small kingdoms that later developed such as Bonoman , were ruled by nobles believed to have immigrated from that region. The trans- Saharan trade that contributed to the expansion of kingdoms in the western Sudan also led to the development of contacts with regions in northern modern Ghana, and in the forest to the south.

The growth of trade stimulated the development of early Akan states located on the trade route to the goldfields, in the forest zone of the south. The forest itself was thinly populated, but Akan-speaking peoples began to move into it toward the end of the 15th century, with the arrival of crops from South-east Asia and the New World that could be adapted to forest conditions.

These new crops included sorghum , bananas, and cassava. By the beginning of the 16th century, European sources noted the existence of the gold-rich states of Akan and Twifu in the Ofin River Valley. According to oral traditions and archaeological evidence, the Dagomba states were the earliest kingdoms to emerge in present-day Ghana as early as the 11th century, being well established by the close of the 16th century. As a result of their presence, Islam influenced the north and Muslim influence spread by the activities of merchants and clerics.

In the broad belt of rugged country between the northern boundaries of the Muslim-influenced state of Dagomba, and the southernmost outposts of the Mossi Kingdoms of present-day northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso , were peoples who were not incorporated into the Dagomba entity. Among these peoples were the Kassena agriculturalists. They lived in a so-called segmented society, bound together by kinship tie, and ruled by the head of their clan.

Trade between Akan kingdoms and the Mossi kingdoms to the north flowed through their homeland, subjecting them to Islamic influence, and to the depredations of these more powerful neighbors. Under Chief Oti Akenten r.

At the end of the 17th century, Osei Tutu died or became Asantehene king of Ashanti. Under Osei Tutu's rule, the confederacy of Ashanti states was transformed into an empire with its capital at Kumasi. Political and military consolidation ensued, resulting in firmly established centralized authority. Stools already functioned as traditional symbols of chieftainship, but the Golden Stool represented the united spirit of all the allied states and established a dual allegiance that superimposed the confederacy over the individual component states.

The Golden Stool remains a respected national symbol of the traditional past and figures extensively in Ashanti ritual. Osei Tutu permitted newly conquered territories that joined the confederation to retain their own customs and chiefs, who were given seats on the Ashanti state council.

Tutu's gesture made the process relatively easy and nondisruptive, because most of the earlier conquests had subjugated other Akan peoples. Within the Ashanti portions of the confederacy, each minor state continued to exercise internal self-rule, and its chief jealously guarded the state's prerogatives against encroachment by the central authority.

A strong unity developed, however, as the various communities subordinated their individual interests to central authority in matters of national concern. By the midth century, Ashanti was a highly organized state. The wars of expansion that brought the northern states of Dagomba, [5] Mamprusi, and Gonja [6] under Ashanti influence were won during the reign of Opoku Ware I died , successor to Osei Kofi Tutu I.

By the s, successive rulers had extended Ashanti boundaries southward. Although the northern expansions linked Ashanti with trade networks across the desert and in Hausaland to the east, movements into the south brought the Ashanti into contact, sometimes antagonistic, with the coastal Fante , as well as with the various European merchants whose fortresses dotted the Gold Coast.

When the first Europeans arrived in the late 15th century, many inhabitants of the Gold Coast area were striving to consolidate their newly acquired territories and to settle into a secure and permanent environment.

Initially, the Gold Coast did not participate in the export slave trade, rather as Ivor Wilks , a leading historian of Ghana, noted, the Akan purchased slaves from Portuguese traders operating from other parts of Africa, including the Congo and Benin in order to augment the labour needed for the state formation that was characteristic of this period. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive. By , they had reached the area that was to become known as the Gold Coast.

The Portuguese position on the Gold Coast remained secure for over a century. By , the Dutch began trading on the Gold Coast. Other European traders joined in by the midth century, largely English, Danes , and Swedes.

The coastline was dotted by more than 30 forts and castles built by Dutch, British, and Danish merchants primarily to protect their interests from other Europeans and pirates. The Gold Coast became the highest concentration of European military architecture outside of Europe.

Sometimes they were also drawn into conflicts with local inhabitants as Europeans developed commercial alliances with local political authorities.

These alliances, often complicated, involved both Europeans attempting to enlist or persuade their closest allies to attack rival European ports and their African allies, or conversely, various African powers seeking to recruit Europeans as mercenaries in their inter-state wars, or as diplomats to resolve conflicts.

Forts were built, abandoned, attacked, captured, sold, and exchanged, and many sites were selected at one time or another for fortified positions by contending European nations. The Dutch West India Company operated throughout most of the 18th century. The British African Company of Merchants , founded in , was the successor to several earlier organizations of this type.

These enterprises built and manned new installations as the companies pursued their trading activities and defended their respective jurisdictions with varying degrees of government backing. There were short-lived ventures by the Swedes and the Prussians. The Danes remained until , when they withdrew from the Gold Coast. The British gained possession of all Dutch coastal forts by the last quarter of the 19th century, thus making them the dominant European power on the Gold Coast.

In the late 17th century, social changes within the polities of the Gold Coast led to transformations in warfare , and to the shift from being a gold exporting and slave importing economy to being a minor local slave exporting economy. In most situations, men as well as women captured in local warfare became slaves. In general, however, slaves in African communities were often treated as members of the society with specific rights, and many were ultimately absorbed into their masters' families as full members.

Given traditional methods of agricultural production in Africa, slavery in Africa was quite different from that which existed in the commercial plantation environments of the New World. Some scholars have challenged the premise that rulers on the Gold Coast engaged in wars of expansion for the sole purpose of acquiring slaves for the export market.

For example, the Ashanti waged war mainly to pacify territories that in were under Ashanti control, to exact tribute payments from subordinate kingdoms, and to secure access to trade routes—particularly those that connected the interior with the coast. It is important to mention, however, that the supply of slaves to the Gold Coast was entirely in African hands. Most rulers, such as the kings of various Akan states engaged in the slave trade, as well as individual local merchants. The demographic impact of the slave trade on West Africa was probably substantially greater than the number actually enslaved because a significant number of Africans perished during wars and bandit attacks or while in captivity awaiting transshipment.

All nations with an interest in West Africa participated in the slave trade. Relations between the Europeans and the local populations were often strained, and distrust led to frequent clashes.

Disease caused high losses among the Europeans engaged in the slave trade, but the profits realized from the trade continued to attract them.

The growth of anti-slavery sentiment among Europeans made slow progress against vested African and European interests that were reaping profits from the traffic. Although individual clergymen condemned the slave trade as early as the 17th century, major Christian denominations did little to further early efforts at abolition.

The Quakers , however, publicly declared themselves against slavery as early as Later in the century, the Danes stopped trading in slaves; Sweden and the Netherlands soon followed.

In , Britain used its naval power and its diplomatic muscle to outlaw trade in slaves by its citizens and to begin a campaign to stop the international trade in slaves. These efforts, however, were not successful until the s because of the continued demand for plantation labour in the New World. Because it took decades to end the trade in slaves, some historians doubt that the humanitarian impulse inspired the abolitionist movement.

According to historian Eric Williams , for example, Europe abolished the trans-Atlantic slave trade only because its profitability was undermined by the Industrial Revolution. Williams argued that mass unemployment caused by the new industrial machinery, the need for new raw materials, and European competition for markets for finished goods are the real factors that brought an end to the trade in human cargo and the beginning of competition for colonial territories in Africa.

Other scholars, however, disagree with Williams, arguing that humanitarian concerns as well as social and economic factors were instrumental in ending the African slave trade. By the later part of the 19th century the Dutch and the British were the only traders left and after the Dutch withdrew in , Britain made the Gold Coast a protectorate—a British Crown Colony.

During the previous few centuries parts of the area were controlled by British, Portuguese, and Scandinavian powers, with the British ultimately prevailing. These nation-states maintained varying alliances with the colonial powers and each other, which resulted in the Ashanti-Fante War , as well as an ongoing struggle by the Empire of Ashanti against the British, the four Anglo-Ashanti Wars. By the early 19th century the British acquired most of the forts along the coast.

Two major factors laid the foundations of British rule and the eventual establishment of a colony on the Gold Coast: British reaction to the Ashanti wars and the resulting instability and disruption of trade, and Britain's increasing preoccupation with the suppression and elimination of the slave trade. During most of the 19th century, Ashanti, the most powerful state of the Akan interior, sought to expand its rule and to promote and protect its trade.

The first Ashanti invasion of the coastal regions took place in ; the Ashanti moved south again in and in These invasions, though not decisive, disrupted trade in such products as gold, timber, and palm oil, and threatened the security of the European forts.

Local British, Dutch, and Danish authorities were all forced to come to terms with Ashanti, and in the African Company of Merchants signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Ashanti claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast and its peoples. The coastal people, primarily some of the Fante and the inhabitants of the new town of Accra came to rely on British protection against Ashanti incursions, but the ability of the merchant companies to provide this security was limited.

The British forts and Sierra Leone remained under common administration for the first half of the century. MacCarthy's mandate was to impose peace and to end the slave trade. He sought to do this by encouraging the coastal peoples to oppose Kumasi rule and by closing the great roads to the coast.


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